Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate Concentrations Following Use of Ethanol Containing Hand Sanitizer
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are minor nonoxidative direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion. The 2-5 day detection window of EtG and EtS is superior to direct ethanol measurements, which is approximately 1 hour per standard drink. The sensitivity of EtG and EtS in urine for beverage ethanol consumption is greater than 90 percent and is therefore an extremely important assay for the early detection of relapse in alcohol abstention programs. Other indirect markers, such as CDT, GGT, MCV, EDAC, WBAA, and FAEE have sensitivities of less than 90 percent3 and are therefore useless as a key indicator of relapse.