Annotated Bibliography for PEth
The Use of Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) as a Direct Alcohol Biomarker to Identify Risky Alcohol Drinking Behavior
Phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a group of abnormal phospholipids, are formed in the presence of ethanol, phosphatidylcholine, and phospholipase D. It is considered a direct alcohol biomarker because of the incorporation of the original ethanol moiety in the final product. Structurally, PEth consists of a phosphoethanol head connected to 2 fatty acid moieties which determines the specific isomer. The palmitoyl/oleoyl species (POPE) was shown as the most prevalent isomer of PEth (40% of total PEth). Once formed, PEth incorporates into the phospholipid membranes of blood and tissue cells and decomposes with a half-life of 4-5 days, which allows for a wide window of detection for excessive alcohol consumption.