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USDTL Research

The simultaneous determination of codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, 6-acetylmorphine, and oxycodone in hair and oral fluid

J Anal Toxicol. 2002 Apr;26(3):171-5.
Jones J, Tomlinson K, Moore C.
U.S. Drug Testing Laboratories, Des Plaines, Illinois 60018, USA.

Recently, the abuse of prescription opiates as alternatives to heroin has become a national concern. The determination of a six-drug opiate panel, codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, and oxycodone, in hair and oral fluid using solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described. Oral fluid was obtained from the donor by insertion of absorptive collectors into the mouth. Hair was collected from the patient and powdered using stainless steel ball bearings in a mini bead-beater apparatus. Opiates present in the samples were extracted from a buffered, aqueous matrix using a solid-phase cartridge. The extracts were concentrated and the methoxime/BSTFA derivatives prepared in order to eliminate interference from the keto-opiates. The extracts were separated by GC-MS in electron impact mode. By utilizing methoxyamine, we were able to produce the methoxime derivatives required for single derivative production and chromatographically separate all six opiates. The routine analysis of these opiates in hair and oral fluid using GC-MS is described for the first time.

Published by: United States Drug Testing Laboratories on

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