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Methamphetamine detection from meconium and amniotic fluid in guinea pigs depends on gestational age and metabolism

Dev Pharmacol Ther. 1992;19(4):183-90.
Nakamura KT, Ayau EL, Uyehara CF, Eisenhauer CL, Iwamoto LM, Lewis DE.
Department of Pediatrics, Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii 96826.

Significant adverse perinatal effects of maternal methamphetamine use have been reported, but little is known about factors influencing methamphetamine screening test results during the perinatal period. We tested the hypothesis that gestational age would affect quantitative recovery of methamphetamine in meconium and amniotic fluid. Time-bred guinea pigs received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 1 mg/kg methamphetamine at either 44 days (0.65 of term, n = 5), 50 days (0.74, n = 8), 56 days (0.82, n = 9) or 63 days (0.93, n = 4) gestation. At 1 or 7 days after i.p. methamphetamine, meconium and amniotic fluid were collected for quantitative methamphetamine assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Recovery from amniotic fluid and meconium 1 day after injection was influenced by gestational age. Greater values in amniotic fluid and meconium and a higher percentage of positive samples were seen in older fetuses. Collectively at all gestational ages, combined testing of amniotic fluid and meconium yielded detectable methamphetamine or its metabolites in 87% of guinea pigs 1 day after injection. However, methamphetamine was not detectable 1 week after injection in any sample (n = 63) at either 0.74 or 0.82 of term except for one positive amniotic fluid sample. Finally, demethylation of methamphetamine to amphetamine was higher in older fetuses.



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