Breast Milk Resources

Breast Milk Resources

To view the Breast Milk Testing Panels and Collection Instructions, click here.

Breast Milk Videos

Chain of Custody Form Review Webinar

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Breast Milk Slide Presentations

The Importance of Following Forensic Principles in Newborn Drug Testing by Dr. Irene Shu

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Breast Milk Articles

A Moment In Time 02-Feb-2015

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Breast Milk Announcements

Report Change Notification Report Change Notification


Effective July 18, 2016, USDTL will be implementing a new way of reporting quantitative results. In order to satisfy accreditation requirement, the concentrations of drugs exceeding the Upper Limit of Quantification (ULOQ) for any given drug will be reported as > ULOQ (greater than ULOQ). The ULOQ will be provided.

Quantity Not Sufficient (QNS) Explained Quantity Not Sufficient (QNS) Explained


Quantity Not Sufficient (QNS) is a result of not having a sufficient quantity (volume) of
specimen to test for the panels ordered. The amount of specimen required for collection
is directly related to the amount of specimen needed to screen and confirm for the panels we offer. The initial screening uses a portion of the original specimen and the confirmation testing uses another portion of the original specimen. To forensically confirm positives, means running a new test, with a new portion of the original specimen, using a different analytical technique.

Updated Policy Regarding Insufficient Specimen Volumes Updated Collection Instructions Updated Policy Regarding Insufficient Specimen Volumes Updated Collection Instructions


It is our first priority to deliver testing results that provide the most valuable information possible for your substance abuse testing needs. To better accomplish this duty to our clients, we are updating our policy concerning specimens that do not have sufficient volume for both preliminary testing and confirmation. Effective April 1, 2015, confirmatory tests that cannot be completed due to insufficient specimen volume will be canceled on an individual drug class and/or analyte basis. We will report confirmation results for each test for which there is sufficient volume of specimen available, giving you access to more information.

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Breast Milk FAQs

*Click the green and white plus sign beside each question to view the answer.

Does the sample need to be frozen?

No, the sample may be shipped ambient.

How much breast milk is needed?

Requested sample volume is 10 milliliters collected in a sterile container.

When will I receive breast milk results?

Results will be provided in two to three days after the sample is received in the laboratory.

Why was one matrix positive and another negative on the same donor?

There are several explanations for this. 

  1. Different sample matrices have different detection time frames. The result of any second collected specimen has no bearing on the validity of a first collected specimen. For example, a hair sample with a three month window of detection might test positive for a particular substance, while a urine sample from the same donor, with a 2-3 day window of detection, might test negative. In this case, the donor has used that substance within the past three months, but may not have used it within the most recent three days.
  2. The result of any second collected specimen has no bearing on the validity of a first collected specimen. Therefore, a negative result observed for the umbilical cord does not refute a positive result observed on the maternal urine specimen and the reverse is true as well. There are many legitimate reasons for discrepant urine and umbilical cord results. 
  3. The urine specimen was a screen only result and was not confirmed using an appropriate mass spectrometric method. The screen only urine result is a clinically valid result, however, without an appropriate mass spectrometric confirmation, the urine result has no value in a forensic proceeding. 
  4. Lastly, some placentas can prevent some compounds from reaching the fetus. There are documented cases of maternal ingestion without in utero exposure.

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